The percentage of eligible North Carolina four-year-olds enrolled in North Carolina’s public pre-kindergarten program for four-year-olds (the NC Pre-K Program.)
During the 2018-19 school year, only about half—48%—of North Carolina’s eligible 4-year-olds from lower income families were enrolled in the NC Pre-K program. By 2030, the goal is that 75% of eligible four-year-olds in each county will be enrolled in NC Pre-K in North Carolina. Currently 28 out of 100 counties have met this enrollment goal.
High-quality pre-K is a foundational year that can significantly improve student readiness for kindergarten and success in school. High quality pre-K programs, particularly NC Pre-K, provide both short- and long-term benefits to students and their communities.
Longitudinal research confirms that children who participate in NC Pre-K:
This research further confirms that these positive outcomes last through at least the 8th grade. Additional research shows long-term benefits include higher graduation rates from both high school and college, and lower rates of both incarceration and teen births.
High-quality pre-kindergarten programs also accrue economic and social benefits for communities.
North Carolina needs more than 16,600 more low-income 4-year-olds to participate in NC Pre-K to meet the statewide goal of 75% enrollment of eligible children in each county.
NC Pre-K served 29,500 children in 2018-19—48% of the nearly 62,000 four-year-olds eligible for participation.
Annual enrollments in NC Pre-K grew steadily between 2001—when the More at Four Pre-Kindergarten Program was first established—and 2009, when enrollments peaked at nearly 33,800. In this year, NC Pre-K served nearly half of low-income 4-year-olds. Annual enrollments in NC Pre-K declined from this peak due to decreased funding: 26,780 children were served in NC Pre-K in 2015-16, nearly 7,000 fewer children than were served at the program’s 2009 peak.
Recent funding expansions have increased the number of enrollment slots to more than 29,500, representing 48% of NC Pre-K eligible children.
Larger percentages—and therefore numbers—of eligible children are not being served in urban areas. This is unexpected because urban areas are typically assumed to have greater access to additional resources beyond what the state provides—which covers only 60% of the cost of NC Pre-K. When compared to urban and suburban counties, rural counties have the largest variation in the share of children who are eligible but not being served. Some rural counties are doing very well, serving more than 80% of eligible 4-year-olds. At the same time, some rural counties are serving fewer than 20% of eligible 4-year-olds.
On average, however: 64% of eligible 4-year-olds in rural, non-metropolitan counties were enrolled in an NC Pre-K program in 2018-19. Rural counties within a metropolitan area had the second highest enrollment rates (54%). Rural counties were the only North Carolina counties where more than half of eligible 4-year-olds were enrolled in NC Pre-K. Urban counties had the lowest NC Pre-K enrollment rates (38%) followed by suburban counties (44%).
Data for North Carolina counties was obtained from multiple sources:
The NC Pre-K enrollment rate reflects the total number of NC Pre-K enrollments divided by the estimated number of eligible 4-year-olds. This estimate was developed for each North Carolina county through the following steps:
State values reflect the sum of all counties.
Numerator includes all children served by NC Pre-K programs (direct report from NC DCDEE).
Eligibility for NC Pre-K is based on income and multiple other factors, such as whether a child has a disability or is in a military household. Estimates of the size of the eligible population are based on income alone and do not fully account for county variation in other eligible populations.
If you know of an organization that is working on this topic in NC, please let us know on the feedback form.
Name: Duke University Center for Child and Family Policy
About: Duke University has been evaluating the impact of participation in the NC Pre-K program for over 15 years. Duke’s latest research, released in December 2018, found that the positive impacts from participation – increased reading and math proficiency and reduced retention and special education placements – last through at least the 8th grade. The research further found that larger positive impacts are on children from less well-educated, more economically disadvantaged, and African American families. Read the latest report.
Name: NC Early Childhood Foundation
About: The mission of the NC Early Childhood Foundation (NCECF) is to “marshal North Carolina’s great people, ideas and achievements to build a foundation of opportunity and success for every child by the end of third grade.” Among their activities, NCECF engages business, faith, law enforcement, and community leaders as early childhood champions to effectively communicate the broad societal impact of policies that affect early development and learning; NCECF leads and supports state and local collaborations – bringing together birth-through-eight health, family support, and education leaders across government, policy, private, nonprofit, philanthropic and research sectors – to advance a shared vision and course of action for maximum impact for children and families; and provides policymakers, advocates, business leaders and the public with research and analysis about the impact of federal and state birth-to-eight policy and innovations proven to achieve results for young children.
Name: NC Pre-K Program Evaluation Project
About: The NC Pre-K Program Evaluation Project at the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute has served as the external evaluator for the NC Pre-K Program since its inception during 2001-2002 (as More at Four). A variety of statewide evaluation studies have been conducted, including multiple studies of program services, classroom quality, and children’s outcomes during their pre-k year as well as longer-term into kindergarten and third grade.
Name: North Carolina Birth-3rd Grade Interagency Council
About: The Council is charged by S.L. 2017-57, Section 7.231(a) to establish a vision and accountability measures for a birth through grade three system of early education that addresses several criteria, including standards and assessments; data-driven improvement and outcomes, including shared accountability measures; teacher and administrator preparation and effectiveness; instruction and environment; transitions and continuity; family engagement; and governance and funding.
Barnett, W. S., & Kasmin, R. (2018). Barriers to Expansion of NC Pre-K: Problems and Potential Solutions. New Brunswick, NJ: National Institute of Early Education Research.
Davis, R., & Hoffman, J. (2008). Higher Education and the P-16 Movement: What Is To Be Done? Thought & Action, Fall, 123–134.
Kay, N., & Pennucci, A. (2014). Early Childhood Education for Low-Income Students: A Review of the Evidence and Benefit-Cost Analysis. Olympia, W: Washington State Institute for Public Policy.
Lynch, R. G. (2007). Enriching Children, Enriching the Nation: Public Investment In High-quality Prekindergarten. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute.
Muschkin, C. G. (2018). Improving Educational Outcomes in North Carolina: Aligning Policy Initiatives in Pre-K Through Grade 3. Raleigh, NC: myFutureNC.
North Carolina Division of Child Development and Early Education. (2018). North Carolina Pre-Kindergarten (NC Pre-K) Program Requirements and Guidance. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina Division of Child Development and Early Education.
Peisner-Feinberg, E. S. (2017). North Carolina Pre-Kindergarten Program evaluation: Key findings (2002-2016). Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina, Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute.
Public Schools First NC. (2018). Quick Facts: Benefits of Pre-K. Raleigh, NC: Public Schools First NC.